The reason is simply that there are no C Level Contact List apprentices anymore because they no longer want to be accepted into the guild or gain its recognition." The dilemma of the intelligentsia Instead of a complete analysis of how Russia's historical experiences relate to those of "Europe", I would rather like to present two theoretical approaches that can help orient oneself in this C Level Contact List highly controversial terrain. First, there is the theory of the cultural divide between West and East put forward by the late Martin Malia. Malia questions the existence of a clear line dividing "West" from "East." He assumes instead that there is a smoother gradation that can be experienced by those traversing the essentially unified Eurasian C Level Contact List continent to the east. The second theory, developed by Maria Todorova , establishes a "relative synchronicity within the framework of a development of longue durée (Long duration)".
Placing diverse European C Level Contact List nationalisms in a unified structure of modernity, Todorova avoids the discourse of "backwardness" and defines the "East"—Eastern Europe, the Balkans, and Russia—as part of a common European space.1. Both theories emphasize Russia's fundamentally C Level Contact List European character, and neither discusses the country's peripheral position. Russia's relative to Europe seems inevitable simply because she has never generated her own vision of C Level Contact List modernity, but instead adopted a European vision. From this arose a persistent dilemma that Russian intellectuals – the so-called intelligentsia – have suffered for the last 200 years.
According to the American C Level Contact List historian Alan Pollard , “the elements that constituted their consciousness were mostly Western products. So precisely those qualities of the intelligent siathat gave them the ability to understand – that is, what constitutes their essence – distanced C Level Contact List this group from the reality of life in the country, which precisely they had to portray two. Furthermore, acknowledging that Russia's modern intellectual tradition is an imitation and that the country is culturally dependent on Europe runs smack into the idea of Russian greatness. In the imagination of the C Level Contact List country's ruling elites, throughout its history, Russia has primarily formed an alternative center of power pursuing a global and universal 'project', like the orthodox empire of the Romanovs or the Soviet empire.